What is a Tankless Water Heater?
Tankless water heaters
, also called Instantaneous or Demand Water Heaters, provide hot water only as it is needed. Traditional storage water heaters produce standby energy losses that cost you money. We do not leave our homes heated while vacationing. We only heat our homes when there is a demand for heat. In the same way, a Tankless Water Heater is used only when there is a demand for hot water.
How do Tankless Water Heaters work?
Tankless Water Heaters heat water directly without the use of a storage tank. Therefore, they avoid the standby heat losses associated with storage water heaters. When a hot water tap is turned on, cold water travels through a pipe into the unit. In an electric Tankless Water Heater an electric element heats the water. In a gas-fired Tankless Water Heater a gas burner heats the water. As a result, Tankless Water Heaters deliver a constant supply of hot water. You don't need to wait for a storage tank to fill up with enough hot water.
Typically, Tankless Water Heaters provide hot water at a rate of 2 – 5 gallons (7.6 – 15.2 liters) per minute. Ordinarily, gas-fired Tankless Water Heaters will produce higher flow rates than electric Tankless Water Heaters. Some smaller Tankless Water Heaters, however, cannot supply enough hot water for simultaneous, multiple uses in large households. For example, taking a shower and running the dishwasher at the same time can stretch a Tankless Water Heater to its limit. To overcome this problem, you can install a “whole house” type Tankless Water Heater or install two or more Tankless Water Heaters, connected in parallel for simultaneous demands of hot water. You can also install separate Tankless Water Heaters for appliances—such as a clothes washer or dishwater—that use a lot of hot water in your home.
Other applications for Tankless Water Heaters include the following:
- Remote BBQ or outdoor sink
- Poolhouse or pool shower
- Remote bathrooms or hot tubs
- To serve as a booster, eliminating long pipe runs, for solar water heating systems, dishwashers and sanitation
For homes that use 41 gallons or less of hot water daily, Tankless Water Heaters can be 24% – 34% more energy efficient than conventional storage tank water heaters. They can be 8% – 14% more energy efficient for homes that use a lot of hot water, around 86 gallons per day. You can achieve an even greater energy savings of 27% – 50% if you install a Tankless Water Heater at each hot water outlet.
Selecting a Tankless Water Heater
Before buying a Tankless Water Heater, consider the following:
1. Fuel Type
- Fuel Type
- Location, Size and Demand
The first thing that you'll need to decide when selecting a Tankless Water Heater is the fuel type. You will need to select between an Electric Tankless Water Heater (like Eemax Tankless Water Heaters or Stiebel Eltron Tankless Water Heaters) or a Gas-Fired Tankless Water Heater (like Rheem Tankless Water Heaters).
If you plan to purchase an Electric Tankless Water Heater, consider the Electrical Requirements:
- Circuit Breaker
Many retailers sell units that will accommodate 110V, 120V, 208V, 220V, 240V, and 277V.
Different Electric Tankless Water Heaters will have various requirements in amp draw. You will want to ensure that you can support the electrical demands of your Electric Tankless Water Heater.
You must ensure that you have a circuit or circuits that will support your Electric Tankless Water Heater. It may be necessary to put your Electric Tankless Water Heater on its own circuit or circuits.
You should consult with a qualified, licensed electrician for more information.
If you plan to purchase a Gas-Fired Tankless Water Heater, consider the Gas-Type and Venting Requirements:
You will first need to identify whether your gas type is Natural Gas or Propane. It is imperitive that you examine your current gas line to ensure that it will meet the requirments of your new Gas-Fired Tankless Water Heater. The requirements of the Tankless Water Heater may exceed that of your existing tank-style water heater.
Next, you will need to consider venting requirements for your specific installation scenario. There are a few important things to keep in mind when purchasing the gas venting accessories for your Gas-Fired Tankless Water Heater.
Be sure that you purchase Category III stainless steel (UL1738 certified) venting for your Gas-Fired Tankless Water Heater. "Type B" venting accessories are not acceptable. Also, be sure to check local building code to ensure that your specific needs will be completely met.
Additionally, many Tankless Water Heater manufacturers offer Gas Venting
"kits". It is recommended that customers evaluate the needs of their specific installation to ensure that they will be getting all of the necessary gas venting accessories. Depending on where you will be installing the Tankless Water Heater, a pre-made kit will probably not meet your needs. Ensure that you measure out the vent route and consider where the discharge will go through the wall or ceiling, consider the necessary clearances, and consider ample access to air for combustion, then buy the appropriate gas venting pieces. Direct vent gas tankless water heaters bring in fresh air from outside for combustion and vent the flue gas using a blower.
*Note: Gas-Fired Tankless Water Heaters may still require a minimal electrical connection. Be sure to review installation requirements for the units you are considering for purchase.
2. Location, Size, and Demand
When deciding which Tankless Water Heater to purchase, you will also need to consider where you will need hot water. Are you looking for a unit that will heat the water at one bathroom sink (single point application), an entire bathroom (multipoint application), or an entire house, apartment, or condo (whole house application)? It is important to recognize the number of fixtures that will require hot water. Each fixture will have its own demands. The chart below illustrates the typical flow rates (demand) for some standard fixtures:
The flow rate is especially important, since Tankless Water Heaters will generate a temperature rise based on the flow rate demanded.
For example, a Stiebel Eltron Tempra 12, running on 240 Volt power, will raise the water temperature by 54°F at 1.5 gpm, 36°F at 2.25 gpm, and 27°F at 3.0 gpm, above the ambient incoming water temperature, up to 125°F.
A larger unit, like the Stiebel Eltron Tempra 36, running on 240 Volt power, will raise the water temperature by 92°F at 1.5 gpm, 92°F at 2.25 gpm, and 82°F at 3.0 gpm, above the ambient incoming water temperature, up to 125°F.
This means that if you are using a 1.5 gpm shower and a 1.5 gpm kitchen sink simultaneously, a total demand of 3.0 gpm, the Stiebel Eltron Tempra 12 will raise the temperature 27°F, whereas the Stiebel Eltron Tempra 36 will raise the temperature 82°F.
Next, you should look at your ambient incoming water temperature. If you live in a cold climate, like New York, your incoming water temperature will likely be much lower than if you live in a warm climate, like Florida. Your best bet is to find out how much temperature rise you will need in order for your hot water to reach the desired heat. If the ambient incoming water temperature for your shower is 65°F, you are using a 2.0 gpm shower, and you want to raise that temperature to 115°F, you will want to look for a Tankless Water Heater that will provide at least a 50°F temperature rise at 2.0 gpm (115°F - 65°F = 50°F). However, if you anticipate additional simultaneous demand, such as the hot water from a sink being used while someone is showering, you will need to add the sink's gpm to the shower's gpm in order to determine your overall gpm demand and then find the temperature rise necessary to meet your overall needs.
You may have a specific application in mind for your Tankless Water Heater. Here are a few examples of the different models and their functionality for a specific application:
Single Point Application
A single point application is one where only one fixture will require an Electric Tankless Water Heater. Here are some examples of Single Point Electric Tankless Water Heaters:
Eemax Single Point Electric Tankless Water Heaters
Stiebel Eltron Point of Use Electric Tankless Water Heaters
Chronomite Instant-Flow SR Electric Tankless Water Heaters
Eemax Flow Controlled
The "Flow Controlled" range of water heaters from Eemax are ideally suited to serve two points, like two sinks, in close proximity. Here is an example of Flow Controlled Electric Tankless Water Heaters:
Eemax Flow Controlled Electric Tankless Water Heaters
The Thermostatic Tankless Water Heater serves as a booster for temperature loss from long pipe runs, dishwashers and sanitation. Thermostatic units are good for applications where precise temperature control is essential; such as schools, hospitals and laboratories. Here are some examples of Thermostatic Electric Tankless Water Heaters:
Eemax Thermostatic Electric Tankless Water Heaters
Stiebel Eltron DHC-E 8 Electric Tankless Water Heater
Stiebel Eltron DHC-E 10 Electric Tankless Water Heater
Eemax Series Two
Eemax Series Two units are ideally suited for residential showers, entire bathrooms, smaller houses, condos, summer cabins and apartments. They will also accommodate industrial boosters, higher flow rate applications such as wash down stations and higher flow rate accurate temperature control applications such as photo labs. Here is an example of Eemax Series Two Electric Tankless Water Heaters:
Eemax Series Two Electric Tankless Water Heaters
Whole House Indoor Use
Larger Whole House units are designed to serve an entire house, apartment, condo, or cabin, where multiple points of use will exist. Here are some examples of Whole House Electric Tankless Water Heaters for Indoor use:
Eemax EX280T2T Series Three Electric Tankless Water Heater
Stiebel Eltron Tempra Series Electric Tankless Water Heaters
Rheem Indoor Gas-Fired Tankless Water Heaters
Whole House Outdoor Use
Larger Whole House units are designed to serve an entire house, apartment, condo, or cabin, where multiple points of use will exist. Here are some examples of Whole House Electric Tankless Water Heaters for Outdoor use:
Rheem Outdoor Gas-Fired Tankless Water Heaters
You can use the calculator below with your estimated monthly/yearly savings by switching from a normal tank water heater to a tankless water heater.
If you run a website and would like to include the tankless water heater calculator on your site, you can copy the code on the right and paste it into your sites HTML.
Proper installation and maintenance of your Tankless Water Heater can optimize its energy efficiency.
Proper installation depends on many factors. These factors include climate and local building code requirements. You should have a qualified, licensed plumbing and heating contractor install your Tankless Water Heater.